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I'm experiencing certain issues with the built-in OpenSSH client that, according to the Win32-OpenSSH Github page, seem resolved in newer versions. The newest version is v7.9 while the preinstalled client is in version 7.6p1. PS C: ssh -V OpenSSHforWindows7.6p1, LibreSSL 2.6.4. As OpenSSH development progresses, older protocols, ciphers, key types and other options that have known weaknesses are routinely disabled. Some examples can be found on the legacy page. SFTP client and server support. Complete SFTP support is included, using the sftp(1) command as a client and sftp-server(8) subsystem as a server.

Applies to Windows Server 2019, Windows 10

OpenSSH is a connectivity tool for remote login that uses the SSH protocol. It encrypts all traffic between client and server to eliminate eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and other attacks.

  • PuTTY has long been the most popular SSH client used on Windows, but since the last major update, Windows 10 now comes with an SSH client preinstalled. It’s easier and faster to use this client rather than installing and configuring PuTTY. How to Install Windows’ OpenSSH Client. First, check if it’s already installed.
  • Dec 12, 2017 Using the Windows 10 OpenSSH Client. To use the OpenSSH client, simply open a command prompt and type ssh and press enter. If the OpenSSH Client was properly installed, you will see the help file.

OpenSSH can be used to connect Window 10 clients to Windows Server 2019. OpenSSH Client is available to install on Windows 10 build 1809 and later, while OpenSSH Server is available to install on Windows Server 2019 and later.

Important

If you downloaded OpenSSH from the GitHub repo at PowerShell/openssh-portable, follow the instructions listed there, not the ones in this article.

Install OpenSSH using Windows Settings

Both OpenSSH components can be installed using Windows Settings. OpenSSH Server is installed on Windows Server and OpenSSH Client is installed on Windows 10 devices.

To install the OpenSSH components:

  1. Open Settings, select Apps > Apps & Features, then select Optional Features.

  2. Scan the list to see if the OpenSSH is already installed. If not, at the top of the page, select Add a feature, then:

    • On Windows 10, find OpenSSH Client, then click Install
    • On Windows Server 2019, find OpenSSH Server, then click Install

Once setup completes, return to Apps > Apps & Features and Optional Features and you should see OpenSSH listed.

Note

Installing OpenSSH Server will create and enable a firewall rule named OpenSSH-Server-In-TCP. This allows inbound SSH traffic on port 22. If this rule is not enabled and this port is not open, connections will be refused or reset.

Install OpenSSH using PowerShell

To install OpenSSH using PowerShell, run PowerShell as an Administrator.To make sure that OpenSSH is available, run the following cmdlet:

This should return the following output:

Then, install the server or client components as needed:

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Both of these should return the following output:

Start and configure SSH Server

To start and configure OpenSSH server for initial use, open PowerShell as an administrator, then run the following commands to start the SSHD service:

Connect to SSH Server

Once installed, you can connect to OpenSSH Server from a Windows 10 device with the SSH client installed using PowerShell as follows. Be sure to run PowerShell as an administrator:

Once connected, you get a message similar to the following:

Selecting yes adds that server to the list of known ssh hosts on your Windows client.

You are prompted for the password at this point. As a security precaution, your password will not be displayed as you type.

Once connected, you will see the Windows command shell prompt:

Uninstall OpenSSH using Windows Settings

To uninstall OpenSSH using Windows Settings:

  1. Open Settings, then go to Apps > Apps & Features.
  2. Go to Optional Features.
  3. In the list, select OpenSSH Client or OpenSSH Server.
  4. Select Uninstall.

Uninstall OpenSSH using PowerShell

To uninstall the OpenSSH components using PowerShell, use the following commands:

You may need to restart Windows afterwards if the service was in use at the time it was uninstalled.

ssh (SSH client) is a program for logging into a remote machine and for executing commands on a remote machine. It is intended to provide secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. X11 connections, arbitrary TCP ports and UNIX-domain sockets can also be forwarded over the secure channel.

ssh connects and logs into the specified destination, which may be specified as either [[email protected]]hostname or a URI of the form ssh://[[email protected]]hostname[:port]. The user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine using one of several methods (see below).

If a command is specified, it is executed on the remote host instead of a login shell.

The options are as follows:

-4
Forces ssh to use IPv4 addresses only.
-6
Forces ssh to use IPv6 addresses only.
-A
Enables forwarding of connections from an authentication agent such as ssh-agent(1). This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file.

Agent forwarding should be enabled with caution. Users with the ability to bypass file permissions on the remote host (for the agent's UNIX-domain socket) can access the local agent through the forwarded connection. An attacker cannot obtain key material from the agent, however they can perform operations on the keys that enable them to authenticate using the identities loaded into the agent. A safer alternative may be to use a jump host (see -J).

-a
Disables forwarding of the authentication agent connection.
-Bbind_interface
Bind to the address of bind_interface before attempting to connect to the destination host. This is only useful on systems with more than one address.
-bbind_address
Use bind_address on the local machine as the source address of the connection. Only useful on systems with more than one address.
-C
Requests compression of all data (including stdin, stdout, stderr, and data for forwarded X11, TCP and UNIX-domain connections). The compression algorithm is the same used by gzip(1). Compression is desirable on modem lines and other slow connections, but will only slow down things on fast networks. The default value can be set on a host-by-host basis in the configuration files; see the Compression option.
-ccipher_spec
Selects the cipher specification for encrypting the session. cipher_spec is a comma-separated list of ciphers listed in order of preference. See the Ciphers keyword in ssh_config(5) for more information.
-D [bind_address:]port
Specifies a local “dynamic” application-level port forwarding. This works by allocating a socket to listen to portOpenssh on the local side, optionally bound to the specified bind_address. Whenever a connection is made to this port, the connection is forwarded over the secure channel, and the application protocol is then used to determine where to connect to from the remote machine. Currently the SOCKS4 and SOCKS5 protocols are supported, and ssh will act as a SOCKS server. Only root can forward privileged ports. Dynamic port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file.

IPv6 addresses can be specified by enclosing the address in square brackets. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. By default, the local port is bound in accordance with the GatewayPorts setting. However, an explicit bind_address may be used to bind the connection to a specific address. The bind_address of “localhost” indicates that the listening port be bound for local use only, while an empty address or ‘*’ indicates that the port should be available from all interfaces.

-Elog_file
Append debug logs to log_file instead of standard error.
-eescape_char
Sets the escape character for sessions with a pty (default: ‘~’). The escape character is only recognized at the beginning of a line. The escape character followed by a dot (‘.’) closes the connection; followed by control-Z suspends the connection; and followed by itself sends the escape character once. Setting the character to “none” disables any escapes and makes the session fully transparent.
-Fconfigfile
Specifies an alternative per-user configuration file. If a configuration file is given on the command line, the system-wide configuration file (/etc/ssh/ssh_config) will be ignored. The default for the per-user configuration file is ~/.ssh/config. If set to “none”, no configuration files will be read.
-f
Requests ssh to go to background just before command execution. This is useful if ssh is going to ask for passwords or passphrases, but the user wants it in the background. This implies -n. The recommended way to start X11 programs at a remote site is with something like ssh -f host xterm.

If the ExitOnForwardFailure configuration option is set to “yes”, then a client started with -f will wait for all remote port forwards to be successfully established before placing itself in the background.

-G
Causes ssh to print its configuration after evaluating Host and Match blocks and exit.
-g
Allows remote hosts to connect to local forwarded ports. If used on a multiplexed connection, then this option must be specified on the master process.

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-Ipkcs11
Specify the PKCS#11 shared library ssh should use to communicate with a PKCS#11 token providing keys for user authentication.
-iidentity_file
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Selects a file from which the identity (private key) for public key authentication is read. The default is ~/.ssh/id_dsa, ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa, ~/.ssh/id_ecdsa_sk, ~/.ssh/id_ed25519, ~/.ssh/id_ed25519_sk and ~/.ssh/id_rsa. Identity files may also be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file. It is possible to have multiple -i options (and multiple identities specified in configuration files). If no certificates have been explicitly specified by the CertificateFile directive, ssh will also try to load certificate information from the filename obtained by appending -cert.pub to identity filenames.
-Jdestination
Connect to the target host by first making a ssh connection to the jump host described by destination and then establishing a TCP forwarding to the ultimate destination from there. Multiple jump hops may be specified separated by comma characters. This is a shortcut to specify a ProxyJump configuration directive. Note that configuration directives supplied on the command-line generally apply to the destination host and not any specified jump hosts. Use ~/.ssh/config to specify configuration for jump hosts.
-K
Enables GSSAPI-based authentication and forwarding (delegation) of GSSAPI credentials to the server.
-k
Disables forwarding (delegation) of GSSAPI credentials to the server.

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-L [bind_address:]port:host:hostport
-L [bind_address:]port:remote_socket
-Llocal_socket:host:hostport
-Llocal_socket:remote_socket
Specifies that connections to the given TCP port or Unix socket on the local (client) host are to be forwarded to the given host and port, or Unix socket, on the remote side. This works by allocating a socket to listen to either a TCP port on the local side, optionally bound to the specified bind_address, or to a Unix socket. Whenever a connection is made to the local port or socket, the connection is forwarded over the secure channel, and a connection is made to either host port hostport, or the Unix socket remote_socket, from the remote machine.

Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. Only the superuser can forward privileged ports. IPv6 addresses can be specified by enclosing the address in square brackets.

By default, the local port is bound in accordance with the GatewayPorts setting. However, an explicit bind_address may be used to bind the connection to a specific address. The bind_address of “localhost” indicates that the listening port be bound for local use only, while an empty address or ‘*’ indicates that the port should be available from all interfaces.

-llogin_name
Specifies the user to log in as on the remote machine. This also may be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.
-M
Places the ssh client into “master” mode for connection sharing. Multiple -M options places ssh into “master” mode but with confirmation required using ssh-askpass(1) before each operation that changes the multiplexing state (e.g. opening a new session). Refer to the description of ControlMaster in ssh_config(5) for details.
-mmac_spec
A comma-separated list of MAC (message authentication code) algorithms, specified in order of preference. See the MACs keyword for more information.
-N
Do not execute a remote command. This is useful for just forwarding ports.
-n
Redirects stdin from /dev/null (actually, prevents reading from stdin). This must be used when ssh is run in the background. A common trick is to use this to run X11 programs on a remote machine. For example, ssh -n shadows.cs.hut.fi emacs & will start an emacs on shadows.cs.hut.fi, and the X11 connection will be automatically forwarded over an encrypted channel. The ssh program will be put in the background. (This does not work if ssh needs to ask for a password or passphrase; see also the -f option.)
-Octl_cmd
Control an active connection multiplexing master process. When the -O option is specified, the ctl_cmd argument is interpreted and passed to the master process. Valid commands are: “check” (check that the master process is running), “forward” (request forwardings without command execution), “cancel” (cancel forwardings), “exit” (request the master to exit), and “stop” (request the master to stop accepting further multiplexing requests).
-ooption
Can be used to give options in the format used in the configuration file. This is useful for specifying options for which there is no separate command-line flag. For full details of the options listed below, and their possible values, see ssh_config(5).
AddKeysToAgent
AddressFamily
BatchMode
BindAddress
CanonicalDomains
CanonicalizeFallbackLocal
CanonicalizeHostname
CanonicalizeMaxDots
CanonicalizePermittedCNAMEs
CASignatureAlgorithms
CertificateFile
ChallengeResponseAuthentication
CheckHostIP
Ciphers
ClearAllForwardings
Compression
ConnectionAttempts
ConnectTimeout
ControlMaster
ControlPath
ControlPersist
DynamicForward
EscapeChar
ExitOnForwardFailure
FingerprintHash
ForwardAgent
ForwardX11
ForwardX11Timeout
ForwardX11Trusted
GatewayPorts
GlobalKnownHostsFile
GSSAPIAuthentication
GSSAPIDelegateCredentials
HashKnownHosts
Host
HostbasedAcceptedAlgorithms
HostbasedAuthentication
HostKeyAlgorithms
HostKeyAlias
Hostname
IdentitiesOnly
IdentityAgent
IdentityFile
IPQoS
KbdInteractiveAuthentication
KbdInteractiveDevices
KexAlgorithms
KnownHostsCommand
LocalCommand
LocalForward
LogLevel
MACs
Match
NoHostAuthenticationForLocalhost
NumberOfPasswordPrompts
PasswordAuthentication
PermitLocalCommand
PermitRemoteOpen
PKCS11Provider
Port
PreferredAuthentications
ProxyCommand
ProxyJump
ProxyUseFdpass
PubkeyAcceptedAlgorithms
PubkeyAuthentication
RekeyLimit
RemoteCommand
RemoteForward
RequestTTY
SendEnv
ServerAliveInterval
ServerAliveCountMax
SetEnv
StreamLocalBindMask
StreamLocalBindUnlink
StrictHostKeyChecking
TCPKeepAlive
Tunnel
TunnelDevice
UpdateHostKeys
User
UserKnownHostsFile
VerifyHostKeyDNS
VisualHostKey
XAuthLocation
-pport
Port to connect to on the remote host. This can be specified on a per-host basis in the configuration file.
-Qquery_option
Queries ssh for the algorithms supported for the specified version 2. The available features are: cipher (supported symmetric ciphers), cipher-auth (supported symmetric ciphers that support authenticated encryption), help (supported query terms for use with the -Q flag), mac (supported message integrity codes), kex (key exchange algorithms), key (key types), key-cert (certificate key types), key-plain (non-certificate key types), key-sig (all key types and signature algorithms), protocol-version (supported SSH protocol versions), and sig (supported signature algorithms). Alternatively, any keyword from ssh_config(5) or sshd_config(5) that takes an algorithm list may be used as an alias for the corresponding query_option.
-q
Quiet mode. Causes most warning and diagnostic messages to be suppressed.
-R [bind_address:]port:host:hostport
-R [bind_address:]port:local_socket
-Rremote_socket:host:hostport
-Rremote_socket:local_socket
-R [bind_address:]port
Specifies that connections to the given TCP port or Unix socket on the remote (server) host are to be forwarded to the local side.

This works by allocating a socket to listen to either a TCP port or to a Unix socket on the remote side. Whenever a connection is made to this port or Unix socket, the connection is forwarded over the secure channel, and a connection is made from the local machine to either an explicit destination specified by host port hostport, or local_socket, or, if no explicit destination was specified, ssh will act as a SOCKS 4/5 proxy and forward connections to the destinations requested by the remote SOCKS client.

Port forwardings can also be specified in the configuration file. Privileged ports can be forwarded only when logging in as root on the remote machine. IPv6 addresses can be specified by enclosing the address in square brackets.

By default, TCP listening sockets on the server will be bound to the loopback interface only. This may be overridden by specifying a bind_address. An empty bind_address, or the address ‘*’, indicates that the remote socket should listen on all interfaces. Specifying a remote bind_address will only succeed if the server's GatewayPorts option is enabled (see sshd_config(5)).

If the port argument is ‘0’, the listen port will be dynamically allocated on the server and reported to the client at run time. When used together with -O forward the allocated port will be printed to the standard output.

-Sctl_path

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Specifies the location of a control socket for connection sharing, or the string “none” to disable connection sharing. Refer to the description of ControlPath and ControlMaster in ssh_config(5) for details.
-s
May be used to request invocation of a subsystem on the remote system. Subsystems facilitate the use of SSH as a secure transport for other applications (e.g. sftp(1)). The subsystem is specified as the remote command.
-T
Disable pseudo-terminal allocation.
-t
Force pseudo-terminal allocation. This can be used to execute arbitrary screen-based programs on a remote machine, which can be very useful, e.g. when implementing menu services. Multiple -t options force tty allocation, even if ssh has no local tty.
-V
Display the version number and exit.
-v
Verbose mode. Causes ssh to print debugging messages about its progress. This is helpful in debugging connection, authentication, and configuration problems. Multiple -v options increase the verbosity. The maximum is 3.
-Whost:port
Requests that standard input and output on the client be forwarded to host on port over the secure channel. Implies -N, -T, ExitOnForwardFailure and ClearAllForwardings, though these can be overridden in the configuration file or using -o command line options.
-wlocal_tun[:remote_tun]
Requests tunnel device forwarding with the specified tun(4) devices between the client (local_tun) and the server (remote_tun).

The devices may be specified by numerical ID or the keyword “any”, which uses the next available tunnel device. If remote_tun is not specified, it defaults to “any”. See also the Tunnel and TunnelDevice directives in ssh_config(5).

If the Tunnel directive is unset, it will be set to the default tunnel mode, which is “point-to-point”. If a different Tunnel forwarding mode it desired, then it should be specified before -w.

-X
Enables X11 forwarding. This can also be specified on a per-host basis in a configuration file.

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X11 forwarding should be enabled with caution. Users with the ability to bypass file permissions on the remote host (for the user's X authorization database) can access the local X11 display through the forwarded connection. An attacker may then be able to perform activities such as keystroke monitoring.

For this reason, X11 forwarding is subjected to X11 SECURITY extension restrictions by default. Please refer to the ssh-Y option and the ForwardX11Trusted directive in ssh_config(5) for more information.

-x
Disables X11 forwarding.
-Y
Enables trusted X11 forwarding. Trusted X11 forwardings are not subjected to the X11 SECURITY extension controls.
-y
Send log information using the syslog(3) system module. By default this information is sent to stderr.

ssh may additionally obtain configuration data from a per-user configuration file and a system-wide configuration file. The file format and configuration options are described in ssh_config(5).